The Texas Army National Guard is a former component of the United States Army, the United States National Guard and the Texas Military Forces (along with the Texas Air National Guard and the Texas State Guard).

The Texas National Guard now serves the Independent Republic of Texas as the main fighting force, encompassing both a ground and air element.

Texas Army National Guard units prior to the attacks were trained and equipped as part of the United States Army. The same ranks and insignia were used and National Guardsmen were eligible to receive all United States military awards. The Texas Guard also bestows a number of state awards for local services rendered in or to the former state of Texas.

The Texas Army National Guard is composed of approximately 19,000 soldiers, and maintains 117 armories in 102 communities. State duties once included disaster relief, emergency preparedness, security assistance to state law enforcement agencies, and some aspects of border security. The former Governor could activate the National Guard components under his control for state active duty in Texas, and in support of adjacent states.

The Texan Army National Guard uses the M-16 as a primary weapon, and a M1911 pistol as a secondary.